Dreams and Visions

dreamingI have a dream…well, I had a dream…but what does it mean? In the past two weeks, I’ve received precisely the same question from two different friends. Both believe that God has appeared to them and spoken to them in a dream, and both wanted to know if it was God or something else or if they were to attribute special significance to the event. Since then, my Facebook wall has exploded with similar questions and a few mildly heated discussions on the topic. As you’ve come to expect, with this topic and all others, here at CTC we will seek to be Biblical first in all things. As my alma mater frequently emblazoned on their entry marquee, “Think Biblically…about everything.” So, what does the Bible say on this topic? And while we’re at it, why do anything halfway? So, I looked up every single instance in the Bible of God appearing to people in dreams, and this is what I found.

  1. Unless you are a prophet or an apostle, this is highly unusual. From the Fall through Revelation, God communicates to people in dreams many times, but in most cases it is to an apostle or prophet. He appears to Abraham (Genesis 15:1), Jacob (Genesis 28 and 31), Joseph (Genesis 37), Samuel (1 Samuel 3), Gideon (Judges 7), Solomon (1 Kings 3), Daniel (Daniel 2 and 4), Peter (Acts 10), Paul (Acts 16 and 18, 1 Corinthians 12), and John (Revelation). In fact, it appears from Scripture that this is one of the primary means, if not the primary means, that God communicates with His prophets and apostles. Here’s the key – the primary way God communicates with His prophets and apostles is through dreams and visions, but the primary way God communicates with His people is through prophets and apostles. For us, that means through their writings in His Word (the issue of whether there are prophets or apostles around today is something for another blog). So, unless you are a prophet or an apostle – a bold claim with fatal consequences if you’re incorrect – you should not expect God to communicate with you in a dream, rather you should be in the habit of looking for His communication to you through His Word.

Now, there are a few exceptions (Abimelech in Genesis 20, Laban in Genesis 31, Pharaoh in Genesis 40, the Midianite armies in Judges 7, Zecharias in Luke 1, Joseph in Matthew 2, and Cornelius in Luke 10). But these are all highly unique circumstances, and are certainly not of the sort that we normally hear today where God appears in a dream to help make some decision (which house to buy, how many kids to have, or whatever — I don’t see any Biblical reason to believe that God answers these sorts of questions though dreams, but that is a completely separate blog.) In fact, after the appearance of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost (Acts 2), with the exception of Revelation there is not another instance of God appearing in a dream. It appears, Biblically, that once His communication to the prophets and apostles was complete, His appearance in dreams ceased. [Note – if it wasn’t God that appeared to you, beware. If it was Aunt Sally or your grandmother or some dear departed friend, we are dangerously close to the demonic realms here. I cannot find a single example of this in Scripture – every appearance in a dream is God, Jesus, or an angel. Anything else, in my view, is likely demonic and reason to exercise extreme caution.]

  1. You can’t trump Scripture with your experience. Yes, I borrowed this from Greg Koukl at Stand to Reason, but it’s a great point that is entirely valid in this discussion. No matter how many times I have this discussion with people, it always seems to come back to this: I tell them what the Bible teaches, and they tell me about the dream they had. I know these dreams can be powerful and compelling, but you cannot “overrule” what Scripture teaches with your personal experience. If there is any inconsistency or question about what the dream has revealed, reject it.
  1. God can do what He wants. With point #1 above firmly supported by Scripture, we also know that God can do whatever He desires that is consistent with His nature, and there are multiple examples in the post-apostolic age of God appearing in dreams to both believers and unbelievers. He obviously used a vision to reach Paul, and many have heard the amazing story of Nabeel Qureshi (he told the story to Christianity Today here, if you haven’t), who is representative of many Muslims who have reportedly been converted to Christianity through visions and dreams. However, several points are critically important here.
    1. God will not reveal anything in a dream that is inconsistent with Scripture. God cannot lie, and He is perfectly consistent. If anything in the dream challenges the clear teaching of Scripture – such as a dream telling you to divorce your wife or any dream advocating or supporting sin – you can rest assured the dream does not have God as its source.
    2. God will probably not reveal anything in a dream that He has already revealed in Scripture. God is a good Father. When my daughter asks me a question I’ve already answered – usually multiple times – I quell my frustration and simply ask her to remember the answer I gave the last time she asked. When I asked my mother – a professional linguist – the meaning of a word, you know the answer I received. Yep…”Look it up!” Returning to another great point by Koukl, this actually leaves us with relatively little for God to “reveal” in a dream. If it’s contrary to Scripture, it’s unbiblical. If it’s contained within Scripture, it’s unnecessary.

Biblically, unless you are a prophet or an apostle, you should not expect God to appear to you in dreams, nor should you seek answers in your dreams. So, what do you do if you think God has appeared to you in a dream? First, test it (1 Thess 5). Is what the dream revealed entirely consistent with Scripture? If so, hold onto it…if not, then reject it. Similarly, if you are following a teacher who claims to be receiving revelations from God through dreams or visions, be extraordinarily careful, as this is rare.  Test every statement in light of Scripture.  Second, share it. Talk to other mature Christians, and have them help you understand it. Finally, obey it. If God truly has given you guidance in a dream, then it becomes an obligatory command upon the believer. You do not have the option to obey or not, such a revelation would carry weight equal to His revelation in Scripture.

So, does God appear to us in dreams today? I think He does, but I think it is highly unusual, largely unnecessary, and often misused. That’s all for now…go back to sleep.

What’s the Best Argument for Christianity?

debateA few weeks ago, I engaged in a lengthy discussion with SM, an atheist, who repeatedly asked this question. He simply wanted to know what my best argument for Christianity was, and he’d be happy to defeat it. Well, I didn’t take the bait – simply because that’s not how the discussion process works, but more importantly because the answer to his question is a bit more complex than he had hoped. In short, there is no single “best argument” for Christianity. Two points and three suggestions for your consideration:

  1. The “best argument” is dependent upon the objection. In other words, an argument I find completely compelling – even convincing – may be entirely unmoving to another. If I reject Christianity because I don’t believe God exists, there are good arguments to use in those situations. I might start with the cosmological argument, moving on to teleological and moral, and try to make some progress. Based on this objection (atheism), the best argument is probably cosmological. Alternatively, if someone rejects Christianity because they don’t believe the Bible is authentic, there are good arguments to address this objection. I might use a historiographical approach, or discuss manuscript evidence or even archaeological and historical evidences. Another great challenge might be from someone who was mistreated by Christians, or encountered hypocritical Christians, and therefore concluded that Christianity is false. Evidential arguments will likely be of marginal use in this circumstance – this would require a more pastoral approach, revealing Christ’s true teaching and what Christian behavior truly looks like.

There simply is no single “best argument” for Christianity. This is the art of apologetics – tailoring the argument to match the objection. If someone offers an emotional objection and I launch into an exposition of the Kalam Cosmological Argument, I will likely make little progress. Similarly, if someone has an objection based on evidence or the lack thereof, offering a testimony about how Jesus makes you feel will likely be received as simply your subjective experience, and largely uncompelling.

  1. Jesus never offered us a “best argument”. He tailored His argument to the objection and to the audience. He never changed the message, but He regularly tailored His arguments and His evidence to the audience and to the objection. When confronted with objections from the Jewish sects – Pharisees and Sadducees – Jesus countered their objections using references from the Torah (Matthew 9, 12, 16, 19, 21, elsewhere). When confronting objections from Roman pagans and other gentiles, appealing to the Jewish prophecies would have carried little weight, as this audience didn’t know these prophecies, and if they had would probably not have recognized them as authoritative. In these situations, Jesus (and Paul, as in Acts 14) used miracles or other devices to demonstrate authority rather than an appeal to Scripture. When confronted with the Samaritan woman at the well in John 4, Jesus again doesn’t refer to fulfilled prophecy, He simply uses love and forgiveness to share His gospel message (Samaritans shared some Jewish beliefs but not all, and a Samaritan woman would probably not have been familiar with the Jewish prophecies).

This same method of tailoring His argument to His audience follows Him wherever he goes. In Matthew 4, while Jesus is in the fishing village of Galilee, He uses fishing analogies – “Come with me, and I will make you fishers of men.” When in the “grainfields” (Matthew 12, probably the agricultural area between Jerusalem and Galilee), He uses agricultural analogies – the mustard seed, sowing and reaping, and others. Had Jesus spoken to the fishermen about the mustard seed or about sowing and reaping, or if He had challenged the shepherds to become fishers of men, His message may have been lost or misunderstood. As Christian ambassadors (2 Corinthians 5:20) and ministers of the gospel, we should do no less. We should follow this Christ-like model – to communicate the message of Jesus, but to do so in a manner sensitive to the audience and tailored to the objections or resistance we are likely to encounter. Never, anywhere in Scripture, do we see Jesus or any of the apostles using a formulaic regimen to share the gospel.

Here is the challenge to clear-thinking Christians: I know of no course where you can learn this. I can’t think of a book that walks you through this process. No, this comes from experience, trial and error, and getting out there and working to share the gospel and overcome objections to it. It is difficult, and there is no “easy out” or panacea that will always work. However, I can offer a few pointers.

  1. Listen.  When talking to someone who has rejected Christ, simply listen. They will eventually share with you their reason for doing so, and usually not immediately. It might take some carefully and prayerfully asked questions, and it might take more than one discussion. If in the first five minutes you start preaching the Roman roads to someone who has rejected Christianity because they don’t think the a Bible is authentic, you’re actually disrespecting them and telling them, quite clearly, that you aren’t listening. Listen first. Question gently and artfully. The other person will almost always, eventually, reveal their reason for rejecting the gospel.  Then, it’s up to you to use the next two recommendations to bring the person back around to the Gospel.
  2. Study.  If you think all you need to do is share your personal testimony, you’ve got a big surprise waiting. If you think all atheists are idiots, you’re in for another surprise. If you think all you need to do is live a “good life,” and people will convert to Christianity just by watching you, then you don’t know Scripture and aren’t following the Biblical model. You need to study. You need to study Scripture, examining how Jesus and Paul and Peter spread the gospel. You need to study – brace for it – theology. You don’t have to enroll in seminary or a Master’s program, but you need to know what you believe, why you believe it, and be able to answer basic objections to the gospel. This is nothing other than the clear command of Scripture in 1 Peter 3:15 – 17.
  3. Practice.  I know it’s difficult. I know it sounds intimidating. I know you’re scared. Unfortunately, the ability to articulate and defend the gospel message is not a gift given to some, it is a command given to all. And the best way to do this – I’d suggest the only way – is through practice. You’ll mess it up, so do I. You’ll face objections you can’t answer, so do I. Some of your study and some of the objections might challenge your preconceived notions – even challenge your faith. Me too. It’s okay, God is with you and will carry you through, and your faith will be stronger on the other side.

The fact is that many within the evangelical community have been misled into a false model of what evangelism looks like. They think what will happen is they’ll meet someone who’s never heard of Jesus, walk them down the Roman roads, pray the sinner’s prayer, add another notch on their belt and move on to the next poor unsaved soul. In reality, especially here in America, you are far more likely to run into someone who has already heard the gospel, and has rejected it for some reason or another. You’ll have to listen, question, understand their objections and reasons for rejection, and be prepared with well-reasoned answers to guide them to the truth. Are you ready?

What Love Isn’t


In the last several weeks, I have been sharply critical of several popular pastors and speakers. I’ll save my concerns about Beth Moore, Perry Noble, Mark Driscoll, and others for another blog – what I want to think clearly about this time is the most common objection I received to this criticism. In short, numerous people admonished me that I shouldn’t be so critical, that I should “just love them,” or that as Christians, we shouldn’t judge other Christians, we are called to simply love them. What this has exposed to me is what I think is a disappointingly unbiblical perspective on Christian love.

The fact is, we are certainly to love each other, but it is not enough to just be loving. I can love my enemy until the cows come home, and he will still spend eternity in Hell if I don’t make the effort to share Jesus Christ with him. News flash to “feel good Christians”: the most loving person you know is still going to Hell if he/she reject the free offer of grace that Jesus provides. You simply cannot love your way into salvation, nor can you love others into salvation, this is nothing more than repackaged works-based salvation. It gets a lot of “likes” as a Facebook status and looks great on Pinterest, but it cannot save. Any of us could quickly flip to 1 Corinthians 13 to find what love is, and any of us could probably quote 1 John 4:8 to show that “God is love.” I don’t dispute this, and I know it’s the greatest commandment (Matthew 22:36 – 40), I get all that…but I want to turn it around a bit and encourage Christians to think for a moment about what love isn’t.

  1. Love does not mean agreement.  I can disagree with someone, and still love them – anyone who is married can easily affirm this truth. I love my wife and daughter more than anyone on Earth, yet we disagree frequently. If a pastor – mine or one in the media – says something that I disagree with, and I express disagreement, that is not being unloving. I can disagree with my wife on her choice of hairstyle (not advisable), her preference for Illinois basketball, or anything else, and love her no less. In fact, some issues are so important that love requires – and the Bible commands – engagement and disagreement. Which brings us to…
  1. Love does not mean we don’t correct error.  If someone holds a belief that is clearly in error, in some cases we are required and commanded to correct the error. As Greg Koukl has famously stated, if a diabetic believes that eating ice cream will decrease their blood sugar, we must intervene and correct the error – potentially saving their life in the process. I cannot retreat to my subjectivist corner and simply conclude that they are entitled to their beliefs, and it’s not my business to correct them. The Bible is clear here as well. Shortly after one of the great verses on love, Paul tells us in Colossians, “Let the message of Christ dwell among you richly as you teach and admonish one another with all wisdom.” We are to admonish one another using the wisdom of the message of Christ in the Scriptures. “Admonish – to express disapproval or criticism, in a gentle and earnest manner.” We are actually being told to express disapproval for and criticize those among us who are acting or speaking contrary to the message of Jesus Christ in the Scriptures. Ephesians follows closely, with a lengthy passage on Christian living. The well-known passage in 4:1 – 14 encourages us to be mature in the Lord, so that “…we will no longer be infants, tossed back and forth by the waves, and blown here and there by every wind of teaching…” This is a clear warning against false teachers, those whose “deceitful scheming” and “cunning and craftiness” risks misleading the body of Christ. Instead, we are to “speak the truth in love” (verse 15). I don’t see another way to read this verse other than as a command to correct those who are deceived by false teachers. We do so lovingly, of course (which is reinforced in verse 16), but we must guard against these false teachers. We simply cannot lean on love to avoid the requirement to correct error, which leads directly to…
  1. Love does not mean we endorse unbiblical behavior.  Especially from teachers! As young Timothy was under Paul’s charge, preparing to take over the church at Ephesus, Paul knew the Ephesians were already plagued by false teachers. Both of Paul’s letters to Timothy make this point repeatedly – in fact, the first point of the first letter is telling Timothy to “command certain people not to teach false doctrines” (1 Tim 1:3 – 4). These people want to be teachers, but they “…do not know what they are talking about or what they so confidently affirm.” The parallel here to the many false teachers present today could hardly be more obvious. Again, the relationship to love is reinforced – love that comes from a “…pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith,” from which these false teachers have departed. One could easily read 1 Tim 1:1 – 7 as saying that teaching false doctrines is a direct departure from Christian love, thus Christian’s loving response is to correct and rebuke the error. But it doesn’t stop there. After a list of the many false teachings Timothy will likely face in Ephesus, Paul tells Timothy, “If you point these things out to the brothers and sisters, you will be a good minister of Christ Jesus” (1 Tim 4:6). Again, exposing false teachings and holding these teachers accountable, ensuring Christians are following sound doctrine, is what it means to be a “good minister of Christ.” This wonderful chapter ends with Paul’s command to “Watch your life and your doctrine closely.” We could all benefit from such a command! What matters is not only how you behave, but what you believe. Paul’s second letter makes many similar commands, telling us that “Opponents [to the gospel] must be gently instructed,” and the well-known uses of Scripture in 3:16 which includes rebuking and correcting believers. Just prior to his death, Paul’s primary charge to Timothy was to “Preach the Word…correct, rebuke, and encourage, with great patience and careful instruction, for the time will come when people will not put up with sound doctrine” (2 Tim 4:2 – 3). Not to belabor the point, but Titus echoes these commands in every single chapter: “Encourage others by sound doctrine and refute those who oppose it” (Titus 1:9), “You must teach what is appropriate to sound doctrine” (Titus 2:1), “These are the things you should teach, encourage and rebuke with all authority” (Titus 2:15) and so on.

Almost every book of the New Testament stands on these two pillars of belief and behavior. We are to love, that is not in question. But part of loving is disagreement, part of loving is correcting error, and part of loving is rebuking unbiblical behavior and refuting false teachings. Arguably, it is both unbiblical and unloving not to follow these commands. So, if I question the teachings of a popular preacher or teacher, I am not being unloving. Quite the opposite. This applies to me as well – I’ve been teaching for over 20 years, and the most loving things my students could do is challenge me when they think I’m wrong, and hold me accountable to the Biblical standard. I expect nothing less, nor does Jesus Christ, nor should you.